Language and Literature Program
Post Graduate Program
The State University of Surabaya
Abstract: The research was intended to improve students’ reading comprehension of procedure text by using picture series. It was simple classroom research based on the researcher’s previous experiment in solving the ninth grader students’ difficulties in understanding procedure text. The difficulties are how to understand the steps and carried out the information from the text caused by lack of vocabulary mastery. Based on the research finding, there are improvement of students’ interest and the result of the test in each cycle conducted by the teacher. In the first cycle, the amounts of students who reach the score higher than 60 were 63%, while in second cycle were 87%. Even though not all of the students (100%) who reach score higher than standard score but using picture series in improving students reading comprehension of procedure text showed the significant improvement and as media picture series are effective in teaching reading skill especially procedure text.
Keywords: reading comprehension, procedure text, picture series
Nowadays, teaching emphasize to the students’ activity in the classroom including teaching English. As Harmer (2002, p. 56) said “under the influence of humanistic and communicative theories, great emphasis has been placed on learner-centered teaching, that is teaching which makes the learners’ needs and experience central to educational process.” So that teachers’ role is not dominant in teaching activity and he/she just facilitates the students to learn the material. It is based on the change of curriculum from government is that Ministry of Education as stake holder in education.
At Junior High School, there are four language skills that should be mastered in standard of competence based on the students’ level. Those are listening, speaking, reading and writing. Those skills are include in each material are taught in each level. To master those skills, the students are taught based on the basic competences that were programmed in National curriculum.
In reading skills, the students learn some types of text such as; narrative, procedure, recount, report and descriptive. Those types of reading text often find in students’ daily life. One of them is procedure text. This type of text can be found in food receipe in magazine, on the pack of noodle and other food, manual or instruction of electronic products, etc. Procedure text can be formed in steps how to do something and how to make something like food or toys.
Generally in teaching reading, of course there are some difficulties found and faced by the students. Harmer (2002, p. 203) said “on the premise that texts with longer sentences and longer words will be more difficult to understand than those with shorter ones.” Of course, longer sentences contain more complex word and those will be difficult to understand by students because students sometimes do not master all of the word in the sentences. So, it is hard to understand sentence by sentence in reading text in order to understand the whole of reading text. The students had lack of vocabularies to understand the procedure text and not all of them had dictionary to find the word meaning. As a result they lost interest on reading the procedure text.To solve the problem, teacher as facilitator should facilitate the students by using media or teaching aids in order the students easier to understanding the contents of the text. One of the alternative choices that can be used in instruction process is picture series.
Based on the problem above the researcher conducts simple classroom action research based on the researcher’s previous experience. It is aimed to solve the problem of students in comprehending the procedure text by using picture series.
2. Theoretical Framework
2.1 Reading Skill
Reading is one of four skills that are taught in school based on the basic competence in National Curriculum. For having learning experience about reading skill for the students, many kinds of text in provided in learning material. Those kinds of text are aimed to improve students reading skill based on the level or grade of them.
According to Mikulecky (2008) “reading is a conscious and unconscious process. The reader applies many strategies to reconstruct the meaning that the author is assumed to have intended.” In reading process the reader need to get information from the text that the writer wants to delivered. By understanding word by word from the text the reader will understand whole meaning in the text. In order to understand the whole of the text, for each types of text in learning material, the students have to master reading skill.
“Reading skills are the cognitive process that a reader uses in making sense of a text” (Mikulecky, 2008). Related to the definition reading is not only translating word by word, as before, but understanding whole the meaning of the text. Of course, to reach this skill there are subskills that involves in reading skills should be mastered by the reader or students. As Rosenshine in Houdson (2007, p. 80) mention as follow:
- Recognizing sequence
- Recognizing words in context
- Identifying the main idea
- Decoding detail
- Drawing inferences
- Recognizing cause and effect
- Comparing and contrasting.
In classroom activities, there are some types of classroom reading performance as Brown (2000, p. 312) explained as bellow:
1. Oral and silent reading
Reading orally at the beginning and intermediate level: can serve as an evaluative check on bottom-up processing skills, double as a pronunciation check, and serve to add some extra students participation if you want to highlight a certain short segment of a reading passage.
2. Intensive and extensive reading
Intensive and extensive readings are categorized into silent reading. Intensive reading is usually classroom-oriented activity in which students focus on the linguistic or semantic details of a passage. While extensive reading is carried to achieve a general understanding of a usually somewhat longer text. Most extensive reading is performed outside of class time.
Based on the aim of teaching reading in ninth grade student in Standard Competence is that understand the meaning of the short functional text to interact in daily life, intensive reading can be applied in the classroom. It is because in that level students need to help or given intervention by teacher in the classroom. As Harmer (2007, p. 273) stated that “intensive reading or listening is often done with the help and/or intervention of the teacher’. Intervention can be done by giving guidance or teaching aid when the process in doing in the classroom. The intervention is aimed to help students easier in doing activity is that intensive reading.
2.2 Procedure Text
According to Anderson and Anderson (2007, p. 50), “the procedure text is a piece of text that gives us instructions for doing something.” Procedure text is kind of text that can be found around us, in manual, food recipes, regulations, and some others “how to” text. Procedure text tells us how something is done through series of steps or action.” In other word procedure text help us do a task or make something. They can be a set of instruction or direction. This kind of text can be found, and actually people often make communication by using procedure text: when watching cooking program on Television, read how to operate the radio in manual, doing practicum, etc.
The following is an example of procedure text.
How to Make Lemonade
For each glass use:
- 2 tablespoons of lemon juice.
- 2 tablespoons of sugar.
- 1 glass of water.
1. Slice a lemon in half and squeeze the juice into a cup.
2. Take out the seeds.
3. Pour two tablespoons of juice into glass.
4. Add sugar.
5. Add water and stir well.
6. Taste the lemonade. You may want to add more sugar or more lemon to make it taste just right.
7. Put it in ice cubes. A drop of red food coloring will make pink lemonade.
Source: English in Focus For Junior High School (SMP/MTs), 2008
A procedure text generally has generic structure as follows:
a. Aim/goal : can be in form of title of the text,
b. Materials: material and equipment are needed. But, not all of procedure texts need this step. This part can be given label “You’ll need”, “Ingredients”, or “Supplies needed”,
c. Steps: steps for doing action (procedure text). This part can be given label “What to do”,
Furthermore, the features that commonly found in the most of procedure text as follows:
· Using simple present tense, usually in imperative form,
· Using temporal connecting word, as first, second, then, next, and finally,
· Using action verbs, as turn on, stir, cook, etc.
Above, has been explained what procedure text for. The social function of ‘procedure’ is to give directions of what the readers should do to accomplish a mission. In other words, ‘procedure’ guides the readers to do something, to operate something, to make something, or to reach certain objectives. See the function in our daily life; it is important to understand the procedure text well.
2.3 Picture series as Teaching Media
Teaching media, can be called teaching aids, has important role in teaching and learning process in the classroom. It is very useful for teacher in explain about the learning material and students can understand easier by facilitated with media. By using media, teacher is able to conduct interesting teaching process and make class atmosphere fun. This situation make students enjoy the learning process and not bored easily.
Many kinds of media that used in education, from simple media till complex media. It may be expensive and cheap media depend on the aim and where it is used. It can be picture, VCD, OHP, TAPE, TV and media that are made by teacher her/himself. Anything that considered can help in teaching process can be used as teaching media as Heininch, Molenda, and Russel (1982, p. 8) argue that “considered instructional media when they are used to carry messages with an instructional intent.” But the simple one and easy to get around us is picture. Among teaching media, picture is the most generally used. Picture explains many things and interesting for students especially for Junior high school. Thus, pictures are usually used in the classroom teaching process to help the students understanding the learning material.
Picture series is one kind of picture media that can be used in teaching process. Picture series is picture consist of sequence of events or story, it can be steps for doing something. Picture series explain an event from the beginning till the end through sequence of picture. It may be consist of steps in doing work or operating device from the first step till the last step.
According to Harmer (2007, p. 286) “in order to encourage students to read enthusiastically in class, teachers need to create interest in the topic and tasks”. In order to make learning process interest teacher provide the task and topic based on the students character and something new for them. Providing the material accomplished with picture is one of the way to make learning process interest and avoid students feel bored in the classroom when ding the task given. That was the reason why the teacher chooses picture series in teaching procedure text.
2.4 Teaching Procedure Text Using Picture series
As mention in the previous discussion that picture is used as teaching aid to help students and teacher in teaching and learning process. It can be used to make the meaning clearer, so that students easier to understand the text itself. Dealing with the function of picture, in this case picture series, it is aimed help students understand deeply about steps and vocabulary in procedure text. As known before that procedure text consists of steps to do something, hopefully picture series may help students understand about the steps are told in the text.
Here are the rules of teaching procedure text by using picture series that may conduct by teacher:
1. Teacher prepares procedure text material in a paper and provide picture series related to the text;
2. Teacher distributes the materials, both text and picture;
3. Students are asked to read the text for several minutes, after that carry out the information in the text such as; what is the text about? What should be preparing? And how is the process done on each steps based on the text and related to the picture series.
4. Teacher instruct the students to find out the structure of the text, grammar is used such as; conjunction, enumerator, and imperative word.
5. Teacher encourage the students make conclusion about the material was given.
This research is classroom action research based on the writer’s previous experience in teaching procedure text by using picture series due to the limitation of time and place. The data provided in this research are from score that students got in learning process. To standardize the result of students’ result in the test, researcher used KKM in English subject for ninth grader is that 60. Students can be categorized mastered the basic competence if they reach score ≥ 60. The subjects of this research are ninth grader students of MTs. NW Tanak Maik, East Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara which consist of 30 students.
According to Mertler (2012, p. 21) “classroom action research can be defined as a research which is done by the teacher to study their own classroom in order to better understand students and to be able to improve their quality and effectiveness.” Thus, both teacher and students are required to get involved actively in classroom activity.
Here are the steps in conducting classroom action research adapted from Kemmis and McTaggart in Burns (2010).
These are the explanation of four steps of Action Research in the Picture:
It was done in the first stage. Here, the researcher prepared everything such as lesson plan and the instrument to collect data including achievement test and field note that was needed in doing classroom action research. The lesson plan was used to describe the instruction for one class, achievement test was used to measure acquired learning, and field note was used to record anything happen in the classroom during the teaching-learning process.
In this step, the researcher conducted the research in the classroom where the problem found. He conducted the research and acted to teach the lesson that has already been prepared. He was being helped by a collaborator. The researcher as the teacher explained the material (procedure text) by providing picture series and the students did the worksheets. Then, they did the task in the group about answering the reading comprehension question which related to the procedure text in the worksheet. The final step, they would do the test individually about procedure text.
The collaborator was observing the class when the researcher taught in the classroom. The observing activities were held to collect the data and put in the observation checklist table and field note. Collaborator as the writer’s assistant filled in the observation checklist table and field note, and commented on anything that occurs in the teaching-learning process, including the obstacles that was found as well as the probable solution to overcome the problem.
Based on the observation, the researcher gets feedback to reflect the next cycle. On this stage, the researcher paid attention rapport between the planning stage and action stage. The result of reflection was used to determine what should be done in cycles. In this stage, the researcher and collaborator discussed the result of the observation and evaluated the treatment which had been done and the students’ achievement in the cycle.
In this part researcher discuss about research finding and discussion based on the result of each cycle. For the first will be discussed about research finding in the first cycle. Based on the result of first cycle can be conclude that it was not satisfying and it need much effort to accomplish the goal of action applied is that picture series. These are what researcher found in this cycle as follow:
1) The students are interested in learning process when they looked the picture about How to Operate Blender.
2) The students do the task with enthusiasm in the beginning of time.
3) Picture series help students understand easier the steps and vocabulary in the text.
4) Teacher monitored the student’s activities and please the students ask about their difficulties freely.
5) Teacher gave the task consist of question about the material (vocabularies), steps and information from the text.
The following weaknesses are found in the first cycle:
1) Teacher is not doing well in managing time. Especially limitation in doing the task.
2) Teachers’ role still dominant in giving explanation about the material.
3) The activity is lack of student’s participation. The students are more focused on the picture series not to the task after a while.
4) The students have more capability do not spread out within each group.
5) The students ask more about the word meaning to the teacher rather than doing by their selves using dictionary or other sources.
Based on the weaknesses mentioned above, the researcher concludes that the first cycle is not done well. Thus, the researcher revised the plan and will apply in the next cycle. The following revised that will be applied in the next cycle:
1) Manage time by focusing on students activities not teachers’ dominant.
2) Encourage the students to do the task more active and involved all the students by spreading out the students who have more capability within each group.
3) Ask the students to use dictionary in finding meaning of difficult word.
In the second cycle the researcher conclude that there are improvement based on the activities observed and the result of the test. These are the points noticed in the second cycle:
1) Students more active in doing the task and used the picture series and dictionary to help them understand more about the text;
2) Students can explain the steps in the procedural text clearly.
3) Students found explicit and implicit information within the text.
After analyzing the result of the whole cycle, the researcher will discuss some research findings is that how learning process in applying picture series as teaching aid and the result of test or evaluation. The findings will be discussed as follow:
First, as the result of the researcher observation in learning process can be concluded that the students showed their interest in learning procedure text using picture series. It can be seen in second cycle process where the students more active in reading the text and finding the information within it. Although there is another effort that teacher did in learning process as revision from the previous cycle is that spread out the students that have more capability in each group work. The students showed improvement in understanding the steps in procedure text by looking the picture series given and found the difficult word easier than before. Thus, they can understand the text more comprehensive than when the students did not give aid like picture series. Over all, what students showed in learning process is the effect of using picture series in understanding procedure text.
Second, the students showed the improvement of comprehending procedure text that can be seen from the score the reached in each cycle. In the first cycle there are 63% students reached score higher than standard score. The data got from the result of the test done in the end of first cycle. While, in the second cycle there are 87% students reach score higher than standard score. From the result in the first cycle and second cycle, there is improvement in the result of test given to the students after learning procedure text using picture series. It can be seen from the amount of students who passed the standard score in the first cycle more than in the second cycle.
Based on the result of each cycle found in this research can be concluded that picture series can make improvement in teaching and learning procedure, especially in reading skill. The improvement are showed in this research can be seen in students’ interest in reading the text and doing the task enthusiastically. The students more active in doing the task even the students that have lower capability, they have already helped by looking the picture series and compared with steps in the text. The other improvement can be seen in the score which students got for each cycle. There are significant improvements in the score of students, is that from 63% to 87%. Those result showed us that picture series are effective in improving students’ reading comprehension of procedure text.
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