News Ticker

Agus Khairi
NIM. 157835401
Language and Literature Program
Post Graduate Program
The State University of Surabaya

Abstract
This research is aimed to analyze the pronunciation errors of plural form, that is –s sound in English produced by KEMENAG Class students. The data collected from recording presentations and discussions are involved within it. This research focused on how the subject produce the allomorph of –s sound in plural form, those are [z], [s], and [əz] sound. The findings are divided into three parts of word lists; those are words with final voiced non-sibilant segment, voiceless non-sibilant and sibilant segment.  The result shows that one hundred percents of [s] sounds are pronounced properly, five percents of [z] sounds are pronounced properly and ninety five percents are error, while one hundred percents of [əz] sounds are error.

Key word: pronunciation error, plural sound –s
1.    Introduction
English is a foreign language for Indonesian people because there are two languages are used before it. Those languages are local language and Bahasa Indonesia. As a foreign language, English is difficult for Indonesian people who learn it. The learners’ difficulty in pronouncing makes phonological errors or mispronunciations occur when English is used. While, pronunciation is important in communication in order to make understand between speaker and hearer. That is same with Mathew (1997, p. 8) argues that “pronunciation will be a vital key to enabling students to communicate in the English, in the move towards communicative goals.” In phonological errors the sounds were produced not proper with the native sound of English should be. It is because there are many different sounds in English that change based on the word and its change syntactically or phonologically.
To know to what extent English learner pronounce sound of English many researches about phonological errors are conducted. One of them is conducted by Nani Indrajani Tiono and Arlene Maria Yostanto, students of English Department, Faculty of Letters, Petra Christian University. They studied about  English  phonological  errors  produced  by  English  department students,  particularly  English  consonantal  sounds  that  do not exist in Indonesian phonetics system – [v], [θ], [ð], [ʒ], [dʒ], and [t∫] – and the patterns  of  those  errors (Tiono & Yostanto, 2008). The result shows that the students produced thirty-four kinds of phonological errors and that the deviations occurred most frequently before, after, or in between vowels.
The finding of the study reviewed above is errors in English consonantal sounds. It was in specific consonant, which are the consonants that do not exist in Indonesian phonetic system. In this paper, the researcher wants to know phonological errors of morpheme of suffix –s in plural form of English. Morpheme –s in plural form has different pronunciation based on the singular word followed it. This present study would investigate how it is pronounced by KEMENAG Class students of The State University of Surabaya.

2.    Theoretical Framework
2.1     Second Language Acquisition and Error
“Second language acquisition refers to the subconscious or conscious process by which a language other than mother tongue is learnt in a natural or a tutored setting” (Ellis, 1989, p. 6). Subconscious process can be interpreted by process of language acquisition indirectly. For instance, the person who stays in foreign country is able to speak using foreign language by acquiring the language in daily life. Contrary with conscious process in second language acquisition, the language is acquired by learning the language systematically in education institution.  Second language acquisition is generally meant with language learning besides mother tongue.
In acquiring second language, the learner may get difficulty that is affected by first language. As Ellis (1989, p. 6) stated that “there was a strong assumption that most of the difficulties facing the L2 learner were imposed by his or her first language.” The difficulties occur perhaps this is because the difference between first language and second language. It can be the rule of how to construct the sentence or smaller unit that can be used to form sentence such as phrase or clause and can be in phonological area that is how to pronounce word.
Furthermore, the difference between first language and second language may make errors. “Error is some of the utterances produced by learners are not well formed according to the rules of the adult grammar” (Ellis, 1989, p. 9). In other word, L2 learners do not memorize the second language rules when produce utterances. The result is difference utterances with target language that can make strange and not understandable. The Error in phonological well known as speech error. Kovač (2011) argues that “speech errors are deviations from the speaker's communicative intention.” This error occurs when second language learners pronounce word that is not appropriate with first language sound.
It can be seen the difference between L1 and L2 influence how the second language learner produce the target language. As Ellis (1989, p. 19) stated that “second language acquisition (SLA) is strongly influenced by the learner’s first language.” The influence can be in accent of second language learners or can be in pronouncing words. Especially in English, many changes happen in pronouncing word based on the change of word itself. For instance, the change can be found in form of past participle word and plural form. The pronunciations are difference with the original word and after change into past participle or plural form.    
Moreover, first language influence occurs in any level of second language learners including adult learners. The influence can be seen in phonological area such as accent and pronunciation. Based on O'Grady and Archibald (2000, p. 418) “one of the most obvious characteristics of adult second language speech is that it is ‘accented’ as the result of phonological and phonetic transfer from the native language”. It is extremely clear that first language phonological and phonetic influence how second learners pronounce word in target language. Errors are caused by learner’s first language called interlingual error. As Tizazu (2014) stated that “Interlingual transfer is seen as a process in which learners use their knowledge of the first language in learning a second language.”
Speech errors occur not only when the second language learners pronounce the original single word in target language but can occur caused of syntactic changes (V. A. Fromkin, 1973, p. 230). For instance, single noun change to plural noun like bus change into busses. The plural ending –es is pronounced as [s] sound but [əz] sound, that sound changes caused of syntactic changes based on the preceding segment. Syntactically, plural change only in ending of noun by adding –s/-es but it can make difference in pronounce it based on preceding segment. It is clear that syntactic change can make different pronunciation and cause error for second language learners.
       
2.2     The Pronunciation of Plurals
As the other language, English nouns have plural form by adding –s/-es in the end of noun. The suffix –s can be form in –s or –es based on letter in the end of each word. For instance, the word mango has plural form mangoes, suffix –s become –es because the vowel in the end of word. Word cat has plural form cats, suffix –s is not change because of the word cat is ended by consonant. Those are mainly rules of how plurals formed in English.
In phonology, suffix –s is kind of morpheme. Morpheme is “a minimal unit of meaning or grammatical function” (Yule, 2010, p. 67). Morpheme is not only form of word but it can be part of word. Morpheme in form of word has meaning and morpheme in form of grammatical function can be determiner of word, also can form new meaning of word. Suffix –s here as grammatical function because it is used to form plural. It is not minimal unit of meaning because when suffix –s is independent, it doesn’t have meaning at all. It can be plural meaning when it combines with noun.
 Morpheme –s has variation in how to pronounce it depends on word that is followed. It has different sound of plural based on the context. As in V. Fromkin, Rodman, and Hyams (2011, p. 227) “often, certain morphemes are pronounced differently depending on their context.” In case of pronunciation, the different depends on the final sound of word. The variation of how the plural is pronounced called allomorphs (Carstairs-McCarthy, 2002, p. 22). The Allomorphs of –s are [z], [s], and [əz].
According to V. Fromkin et al. (2011, p. 229), “the distribution of plural allomorphs in English is conditioned by the final segment of the singular form.” The sound of final segment of singular must be known well by the speaker when pronouncing the word. It is because the sound of morpheme –s depend on how the final sound of singular is pronounced. For instance, words cab, cap and bus have plural forms cabs, caps and buses. Those plural forms have different sound of morpheme –s based on the final segment of singular form. The word cab has final segment voiced non-sibilants then the ending of plural is pronounced as [z]. The next is word cap that has final segment voiceless non-sibilant then the ending of plural is pronounced as [s]. The last is word bus that has final segment sibilant the ending plural is pronounced as [əz]. Based on those examples can be concluded the rule of plural pronunciation as stated in V. Fromkin et al. (2011, p. 229) as bellow:
Allomorph
Environment
[z]
After voiced non-sibilant segments
[s]
After voiceless non-sibilant segments
[əz]
After sibilant segment
    
Here are the examples of words that have three kinds of segments are mentioned above:
Table 1. Words with three Kinds of Segment.
voiced non-sibilant segments
Non-sibilant segments
sibilant segment
cab
cad
bag
love
lathe
cam
can
call
bar
spa
boy
cap
cat
back
cuff
faith
bus
bush
buzz
garage
match
badge
                                              Taken from (V. Fromkin et al., 2011, p. 229)

In phonetic symbol can be written as below:
Allomorph
Environment
[z]
After [b], [d], [g], [v], [ð], [m], [n], [ŋ], [l], [r], [ɑː], [ɔɪ]
[s]
After [p], [t], [k], [f], [θ]
[əz]
After [s], [ʃ], [z], [ʒ], [tʃ], [dʒ]

Difference sound of –s sound or allomorph of -s are matter of how final sound of the word it followed. As stated in Carstairs-McCarthy (2002, p. 22) “three allomorphs are distributed in an entirely regular fashion, based on the sound immediately preceding the suffix.” Above has already mentioned there are three kinds of final sound are followed by plural –s sound. The first is voiced non-sibilant segment, that produced by passing air through the glottis and cause vibration and without hissing sound. The second is voiceless non-sibilant segment. When produced this sound the air flows freely through the glottis into the oral cavity and without hissing sound. The last is sibilant segment, that is produced by the air is not blocked at any point and there is no plosion. Then sibilant sounds are sound with clear hissing noise (Hamann & Schmitz, 2005, p. 11).


3.    Method
The present study is qualitative research which is conducted to find out the errors in pronunciation of plural form (suffix –s). The subject is The Students of PPs UNESA KEMENAG Class 2015. Data is gotten from recording of Class Presentation by Students and limited by taking three recording video presentation. Those are involved three presenters and participants in discussion session. The researcher will collect the utterances of plural form and will be analyzed whether it is proper pronunciation or not based on the phonetic rules of English. Then, the finding will be presented in list of plural form and the result of data analysis.

4.    Discussion
In this discussion will present the finding of the research found when analyzed the recording discussions. The finding will be categorized based on the segment of noun that should be followed by Allomorph of plural –s, there are three sound of it, is that [z], [s], [əz]. Those categories are Voiced non-sibilant segment, voiceless non-sibilant segment and sibilant segment.
a.    Voiced Non-sibilant Segment
This kind of segment of word is followed by sound [z] in plural form. The finding provided as follows:

Table 2. Words with Voiced Non-sibilant Segment
Number
Finding
Correct/Error Pronunciation
Word Produced
Sound of Plural
Correct
Error
1
questions
[s]

×
2
learners
[z]
×

3
phenomenons
[s]

×
4
values
[s]

×
5
morals
[s]

×
6
characters
[s]

×
7
gods
[s]

×
8
names
[s]

×
9
cultures
[s]

×
10
legs
[s]

×
11
pictures
[s]

×
12
capitals
[s]

×
13
words
[s]

×
14
ways
[s]

×
15
members
[s]

×
16
fields
[s]

×
17
societies
[s]

×
18
terms
[s]

×
19
examples
[s]

×
20
goals
[s]

×
% of Correct/Error
5%
95%
   
From the table above, can be seen there are twenty plural words produced and five percents pronounced properly, while fifty five percents plural words were not pronounced properly. The subjects tended to make errors in pronounce [z] sound, they did not pronounce as phonological rule stated that voiced non-sibilant segment must be followed [z] sound in plural form. It means that suffix –s in those twenty words above must be pronounced by [z] sound but the subjects pronounced them by sound [s] except one word that is learners      
b.   Voiceless Non-sibilant Segment
This kind of segment of word is followed by sound [s] in plural form. The finding provided as follows:
Table32. Words with Voiceless Non-sibilant Segment
Number
Finding
Correct/Error Pronunciation
Word Produced
Sound of Plural
Correct
Error
1
things
[s]
×

2
students
[s]
×

3
myths
[s]
×

4
characteristics
[s]
×

5
legends
[s]
×

6
interpretations
[s]
×

7
definitions
[s]
×

8
restaurants
[s]
×

9
communications
[s]
×

10
persons
[s]
×

11
combinations
[s]
×

12
interpretations
[s]
×

13
minutes
[s]
×

14
groups
[s]
×

15
events
[s]
×

16
parties
[s]
×

% of Correct/Error
100%

The table above showed words with voiceless non-sibilant segment, there are sixteen words found from the data collecting. In the table can be seen all of the words pronounced properly based on phonological rule that stated the word with voiceless non-sibilant segment must be followed by [s] sound in plural form. It seems that the [s] sound is commonly pronounced by the subjects as plural form of those words.    
c.    Sibilant Segment
This kind of segment of word is followed by sound [əz] in plural form. The finding provided as follows:
Table 4. Words with Sibilant Segment
Number
Finding
Correct/Error Pronunciation
Word Produced
Sound of Plural
Correct
Error
1
places
[s]

×
2
goddesses
[s]

×
3
paraphrases
[s]

×
4
sentences
[s]

×
5
senses
[s]

×
6
circumstances
[s]

×
7
sources
[s]

×
8
differences
[s]

×
% of Correct/Error

100%

In the table above can be seen there are eight words are found in collecting data from the recording. Those words have final sibilant segment that must be followed by [əz] in plural form. The suffix –s must be pronounced as [əz] sound based on the phonological rule. But in the table above can be seen all of the plural forms are pronounced by [s] sound. It means that the subjects tent too make errors in pronouncing [əz] sound in plural form.   

5.    Conclusion
From the findings and analysis, it was found that from the three objects in this study there are two objects almost one hundred percents error in pronouncing and one abject is one hundred percents pronounced properly that is plural form with final voiceless non-sibilant segment. While those two objects that errors pronunciation are plural forms with final voiced non-sibilant segment and sibilant segment. There are ninety five percents errors pronunciation in word that have final voiced non-sibilant segment and five percent are pronounced properly. In pronouncing plural form with final sibilant segment, one hundred percents from findings are errors pronunciation.
Hopefully, this research can be made as evaluation for the subjects and member of the class in produced plural form. It cannot be allowed that error pronunciation especially in plural form usually happen in daily speaking. They have to remind that English will be used in lecturing activities and other scientific activities later on.  They must more pay attention in pronounce plural form mainly in words that have final voiced non-sibilant segment and sibilant segment in order to be able to speak English fluently.               

References
Carstairs-McCarthy, A. (2002). An Introduction of Morphology: Words and Their Structure. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Ellis, R. (1989). Understanding Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Fromkin, V., Rodman, R., & Hyams, N. (2011). An Introduction to Language. Canada: Cengage Learning.
Fromkin, V. A. (1973). Speech Errors as Linguistuc Evidence.
Hamann, C., & Schmitz, C. (Eds.). (2005). Phonetics and Phonology: Reader for First Year English Linguistic. Oldernburg: University of Oldernburg.
Kovač, M. M. (2011). Speech Errors in English as Foreign Language: A Case Study of Engineering Students in Croatia. 1(1).
Mathew, I. B. D. (1997). Errors in Pronunciation Of Consonants by Indonesian, Gayo and Acehnese Learners of English as A Foreign Language. (Master of Arts), Edith Cowan University.  
O'Grady, W., & Archibald, J. (2000). Contemporary Linguistic Analysis: An Introduction. Canada: Pearson Education Canada Inc.
Tiono, N. I., & Yostanto, A. M. (2008). A Study of English Phonological Errors Produced by English Department Students 10(1).
Tizazu, Y. (2014). A Linguistic Aanalysis Of Errors In Learners’ Compositions: The Case Of Arba Minch University Students International Journal of English Language and Linguistics Research.

Yule, G. (2010). The Study of Language (4 ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press.