January 2017 - NDL institute
Tulisan Terkini

Tuesday, January 17, 2017

Analyzing Waiting for Godot as A Theater of the Absurd

Analyzing Waiting for Godot as A Theater of the Absurd
Agus Khairi

Binary Opposition in Waiting for Godot
Binary opposition can be found in many literary work that show the reader such condition in contrary. The condition is extremely different between one and other. It means that an element in the story or literary work has its own opposition. According to structuralism, the human mind perceives difference most readily in terms of opposites, which structuralists call binary oppositions: two ideas, directly opposed, each of which we understand by means of its opposition to the other. For instance; white and black, dull and smart, big and small, etc. (Tyson, 2006. p.213).
In Waiting for Godot, binary opposition theory can be applied in order to the reader know about what in opposite in the story. Below will be proposed some dialogues from Waiting for Godot as a theater of the absurd that claimed contain binary opposition. Those can be happen between the characters in the play. Some binary opposition will be discussed in the following paragraph.
First binary opposition is about the philosophical manner and mundane manner. The opposition between Vladimir and Estragon’s actions, ways of thinking, feelings, appearance and even their levels of intelligence has created this extraordinarily magnificent appeal to the readers’ soul and mind. From the beginning of the play we can feel the philosophical manner of Vladimir’s thinking, while Estragon is mostly obsessed with mundane matters. In other words estragon does not contemplate profoundly about different matters as in:
Vladimir: One out of four. Of the other three, two don't mention any thieves at all and the third says that both of them abused him.    
Estragon: Who?  
Vladimir: What?  
Estragon: What's all this about? Abused who?  
Vladimir: The Saviour.  
Estragon:    Why?  
Vladimir: Because he wouldn't save them.  
Estragon: From hell?  
Vladimir: Imbecile! From death.  
Estragon: I thought you said hell.  
Vladimir: From death, from d ( pp. 5-6)
Second binary opposition is about care and careless that appears in Character Estragon and Vladimir and Pozzo. Although Estragon and Vladimir are careless of the notion of time, but pozzo is very care about it. More accurately, they do not even find the spending of the time something worthy, passing the time is what they like, but pozzo keeps track of the time alertly:
Stop! (Lucky stops.) Yes, the road seems long when one journeys all alone for . . . (he consults his watch) . . . yes . . .
(he calculates) . . . yes, six hours, that's right, six hours on end. (p. 17)
Third binary opposition is that polite and unpolite talk between Estragon and Pozzo. This happen in dialogue between Estragon and Pozzo where Estragon speak polite by calling  “Mr.” to Pozzo but then contrary Pozzo speak unpolite, speaks as usual to Estragon.    
Estragon: Mister . . . excuses me, Mister . . .  
Pozzo: You're being spoken to, pig! Reply! (To Estragon) Try him again.  
Estragon: Excuse me, Mister, the bones; you won't wanting the bones?  
Lucky looks long at Estragon
Pozzo: (In raptures). Mister! (Lucky bows his head.) Reply! Do you want them or don't you? (Silence of Lucky. To Estragon.) (p. 20)
The last binary opposition is that when they are so depressed with their monotonous life that they want to hang themselves, but it manifests their appearances which are the antithesis of one another.
Estragon: Let's hang ourselves immediately!  
Vladimir: From a bough? (They go towards the tree.) I wouldn't trust it.  
Estragon: We can always try.  
Vladimir: Go ahead.  
Estragon: After you.  
Vladimir: No no, you first.  
Estragon: Why me?  
Vladimir: You're lighter than I am. (p.10)


Torkamaneh, Pouria. (2011). Samuel Beckett’s Waiting for Godot: A Postmodernist Study. English Language and Literature Studies. Vol. 1, No. 1; June 2011
Tyson, L. (2006). Critical Theory Today (2 ed.). New York: Routledge.


Agus Khairi

Three points of Character analysis:
a.        Character’s Action
From the story can be explained how the character Momo act, she is BRAVE child.
In the story, Momo depict as a brave child. It can be seen in her action when She keep trying to save the time from Men in Grey and adventure to the depths of her heart, where her own time flows from in the form of lovely hour lilies, to the lair of the Men in Grey themselves, where the time people believe they save is hoarded.
Furthermore, she has exactly one hour to defeat the Men in Grey in a frozen world where only they and she are still moving. She surreptitiously follows them to their underground lair and observes as they decimate their own number in order to stretch their supply of time as far as possible.

b.        Character’s Speech
Character speech of Momo can be seen through her talk when she makes dialogue or involved in dialogue with someone. For instance:
"So," said one of the men, "you like it here, do you ?"
Momo nodded.
"And you want to stay here ?"
"Yes, very much."
"Won't you be missed, though ?"
"I mean, shouldn't you go home ?"
"This is my home," Momo said promptly.
"But where do you come from ?"
Momo gestured vaguely at some undefined spot in the far distance. 

"You're called Momo, aren't you ?"
"That's a pretty name, but I've never heard it before. Who gave it to you ?"
"I did," said Momo.
"You chose your own name ?"
"When were you born ?"
Momo pondered this. "As far as I can remember," she said at length, "I've always been around."

From the dialogue can be depicted that Momo is a child who does not talk much, she is not talkative child. She answered the question from interlocutor very short and as needed and rarely asking question. So, it can be concluded that Momo is an INTROVERT child.
c.         Character’s Thought
Thought of the character in the story can be seen from what the character think about the other or his/her environment. Author invites reader climb the character’s head to explain the character thoughts. It also depict by the author in the dialogue where the character is involved and reveal in the character’s action. In the story, the character Momo’s thoughts depict as a CARE and VISIONARY person.
It can be seen in her action to save the time from Men in Grey effort to keep the time they take from other people in Timesaving Bank for their community. She care about the others time because her vision that time is very important for people.
Her care also can be seen from the dialogue between her and Hora when she ask to invite her friend to see professor Hora and where the time come from. This dialogue can depict to us about her care,
"So where was I ?"
"In the depths of your own heart," said the professor, gently stroking her tousled hair.
"Professor Hora," she whispered again, "may I bring my friends to see you too ?"
"No," he said, "not yet. That isn't possible."
"How long can I stay with you, then ?"
"Until you feel it's time to rejoin your friends, my child."
"But may I tell them what the stars were saying ?"
"You may, but you won't be able to."
"Why not ?"
"Because, before you can, the words must take root inside you."
"But I want to tell them - all of them. I want to sing them what the voices sang. Then everything
would come right again, I think."
"If that's what you really want, Momo, you must learn to wait."
"I don't mind waiting."
"I mean, wait like a seed that must slumber in the earth before it can sprout. That's how long the
words will take to grow up inside you. Is that what you want ?"
"Yes," she whispered.
"Then sleep," said Professor Hora, gently passing his hand across her eyes. "Sleep !"
And Momo heaved a deep, contented sigh and fell asleep.
(Blow, 2011)


Blow, M. (2011). Analyzing Characters with WALTeR.   Retrieved from http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/classroom_solutions/2011/03/analyzingcharacterswithwalter



Agus Khairi

Those two chapters of Momo can be analyzed by applying Moral Criticism, refer to the contain of the story as part of Momo. This criticism is appropriate to be applied in these two chapters by the reason that a literary work has to teach attitude to the reader within it. Through literary work, author show the reader good and bad thing that can happen in daily life. To analyze those moral or attitudes in literary work, in this case, Momo, the reader come up with Moral Criticism.
Furthermore, Moral Criticism is appropriate to be applied to those two chapters because the Story of Momo consist of teaching about how do the person caring time in their life. Ofcourse as a story, Momo has attitude to be taught to the reader like others literary work do. Because Moralist believe that every literary work has moral value or attitude that should be delivered to the reader as taught. Moreover, theme in this story about time is interesting to be made as taught for human being in real life. So that is why the important hing that shpuld be considered in this story is moral, as stated in Guerin, Labor, Morgan, Reesman, and Willingham (2005, p. 78) “the important thing  is  the  moral  or  philosophical  teaching”. It means that structure, plot, setting etc. in the story are the secondary focus for the reader and moral becomes primary focus.
The other reason can be proposed to strengthen that Moral criticism is appropriate to be applied to this work is that one of feature in moral critics, features of the social act, “evolved instincts for belonging, caring,  and  shared  experience  do  some  of  the  work  of motivating individuals to behave in ways that sustain social relations (Churchland, 2012; Deigh, 1996; Joyce, 2006; Rai &  Fiske,  2011) in Voiklis, Cusimano, and Malle (2014, p. 1700)”. Those instinct for belonging and caring are shown in Momo, roled by the characters of the story. How Men in Grey want to have the time for theirs and take it from Momo. Otherwise, Momo try as strong as she can to take care the time in order that Men in Grey can not take it out from herself.
To sum up, the story of Momo can be analyzed by using an approach that focus on Moral or attitudes are taught from the story, that is Moral Criticism. This critic come up with believe that every literary work has moral or attitudes should be taught to the reader when he/she reads the story/literary work.

Guerin, W. L., Labor, E., Morgan, L., Reesman, J. C., & Willingham, J. R. (2005). A Handbook of Critical Approaches to Literature (5 ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.
Voiklis, J., Cusimano, C., & Malle, B. (2014). A Social-Conceptual Map of Moral Criticism. Proceeding of 36th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 1700-1705. 



Agus Khairi

Literary criticism has important role in literary studies since several years ago. This is because criticism can see the whole aspect of literary work, based on the critic used in seeing the literary work. It is not only matter of how to read and understanding the work but how to interpret the text within the work. Furthermore, criticism can be used to analyze and see thing beyond the text, how the work relate to daily life, social community and the relationship within the community. Of course, critic as basic word of criticism is totally different with review or report about literary work. Critics not only talk about good or bad about literary work, not only talk about the weakness but also about the strengthens of literary work. That is why the literary criticism is important in literary studies.
Literary criticisms see the literary work from some point of views. For instance; social aspect, economy, psychology, history, and philosophy. Those aspects can enrich our knowledge as reader base on what aspect that become our focus because critics as tool for the reader to understanding what literary work talk about, what message that will be deliver to the reader. This is in line with what Tyson (2006) stated that “critical theory, I think you will find, provides excellent tools for that endeavor, tools that not only can show us our world and ourselves through new and valuable lenses but also can strengthen our ability to think logically, creatively, and with a good deal of insight”. It means that literary criticism can improve our capability in reading comprehension in order to understand broader about literary work.
As a tool in literary studies, critic plays an important role in doing studies or analysis about literary work. Applying criticism make our focus on certain aspect or element of literary work sharper than reading as usual. The reader can focus on an aspect as his/her interest toward the literary work. For instance; focus on structure, history, philosophy, or may be psychology within the literary work. This is because there are some literary criticisms proposed by some experts based on his focus study.
 Furthermore, in literary studies needed specific analysis to know specific aspect toward literary work. It is because each reader has different interest based on his/her background knowledge or critical theory that used to study the work. By applying certain critic to the literary work, it will be possible the reader knows what others do not know because different point of view. that is the principle of criticism as Alhemiry argued “to understand something accurately which is misunderstood by "other" is one of the principles of criticism.” It is clearly that criticism help the reader to understand the work through specific point of view to know something that the others do not understand within the the literary work.

Alhemiry, N. The Importance of Literary Criticism for University student.   Retrieved from https://www.academia.edu/6555621/The_Importance_of_Literary_Criticism_for_University_student
Blow, M. (2011). Analyzing Characters with WALTeR.   Retrieved from http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/classroom_solutions/2011/03/analyzingcharacterswithwalter
Guerin, W. L., Labor, E., Morgan, L., Reesman, J. C., & Willingham, J. R. (2005). A Handbook of Critical Approaches to Literature (5 ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.
Tyson, L. (2006). Critical Theory Today (2 ed.). New York: Routledge.

Voiklis, J., Cusimano, C., & Malle, B. (2014). A Social-Conceptual Map of Moral Criticism. Proceeding of 36th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 1700-1705.



Agus Khairi

Communicative competence is the aim of English language teaching in national education system in Indonesia. Communicative competence means that how to get meaning in order to understand what speaker says in certain context of communication (Hyme in Brown, 2007, p. 196). To achieve the aim of learning English is not easy for most of students in each level of education. It is because English is considered as foreign language for Indonesian people. Thus, some approaches and methods in language teaching are applied in order the students achieve the target of language teaching and learning.
   The existence of methods and approaches in teaching English as foreign language (EFL) are needed by teacher as guidance in conducting teaching and learning in the classroom. By having appropriate approach and method teacher can arrange technique in classroom to make students easier to understand the material given. Technique in teaching can be teachers’ creation base on approach and method used as paradigm. Even though the best approach to teach oral skill become debate in methodological aspect (Richard, 2008 p.19).
One of teacher consideration in English language teaching is teaching speaking as part of four skills that should be taught in the classroom. As EFL students many Indonesian students get difficulties in compose utterances in oral communication because lack of vocabulary and can not produce fast, whereas use grammatical word classes like verbs is one of microskills of oral communication according to Brown (2000, p.272). Creativity in classroom activity is needed in this case to make students easier to gain speaking competence in each level.
Educational games can be developed by teacher in conducting teaching and learning to make class atmosphere fun and conducive. By learning through game, students get lot of benefit (Stojkovic and Jerotijevic, 2011 p. 940). The game has to consist of educational value and designed for helping students achieve the aim of learning process at that time but still it makes students having fun. As Hadfield (1998 p.4) says that “a game is an activity with rules, goal, and element of fun”. Those three elements have to be considered by teacher when use a game in the classroom activity to keep learning process as priority, not only give priority to having fun but avoid goal of learning process.
Game can be used in any level of students at school accord with need and level of difficulty from the material that will be delivered to the students. It will effectively in the end of class activity to make cheerful English classroom activity after a long day learning process (Harmer, 1991 p.101). It is possible to use game at the beginning of the classroom to warm up the activity to get students involved in next learning process and prepare students’ knowledge either grammar or vocabulary needed in material that will be learned. Thus, in this article proposed a game that is designed for teaching grammar and vocabulary at the same time namely grammarly in line.           

This is kind of game that developed to help students produce sentence using category given. This game need fast thinking in deciding and producing sentence. 
·      Increase students’ understanding about grammar
·      Increase student’s speaking ability
·      Assess students understanding about grammar
·      Increase students’ vocabulary mastery 

·      Word card (verb, adjective)
·      Box or other container can be used to put the word card

C.      ROLE
1.         Prepare word card about verb or adjective, especially word that can be categorized into two or more category, e.g. verb; regular verb and irregular verb in form of simple past.
2.         Provide timer (stopwatch)
3.         Divide students into 2-4 groups that consist of 7-12 students in each group (depend on the number of the students you have in the classroom).
4.         Choose which group will be the first, second, and next player.
5.         Ask a group to line up
6.         Each student in the group will take the word card in the box one by one.
7.         Student reads aloud the word in word card and decides to line up based on the category (left or right side of the main line). If the student line up on the correct line, he/she gets 5 point and may go to the next step, but if he/she lines up in incorrect line the student can not go to the next step and back to the main line.
8.         Then, students make a sentence using the word he/she got from the box. If the student can make a correct sentence, the group will get 10 point, but if the student can not make a sentence or he/she make incorrect sentence the students must back to the main line.
9.         Next student continue the step until the last member of group and the teacher will note the time consuming.
10.     Continued by the other group by same step as before.
Winner categories:
1.    The winner is the group get the highest score
2.    If there are two or more group get same score, the winner will be decided based on the fastest time.
Brown, H. Douglas. (2007). Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. USA: Pearson Education, Inc.
Brown, H. Douglas. (2000). Teaching by Principle: An Interactive Approach to language Pedagogy. 2nd ed. Longman
Hadfield, Jill. (1998). Elementary Vocabulary Games. England: Longman.
Harmer,  Jeremy. (1991). The Practice of English Language Teaching:  New Edition. New York:  Longman.
Richards, Jack C. (2008). Teaching Listening and Speaking: From Theory to Practice. USA: Cambridge University Press

Stojkovic, Miljana K. and Danica M. Jerotijevic. (2011). Reasons for Using or Avoiding Games in an EFL Classroom. 1st International Conference on Foreign Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics. May 5-7 2011. Sarajevo

Monday, January 16, 2017



Agus Khairi
Ali Rosyidi
Eka Laili Hermayanti
Miftakul Fikri
Nurul Hidayati


The purpose of this paper is to study and identify the essential dimensions of intercultural communicative competence  (ICC) and to establish a framework for assessing the ICC of the students that included a self- report inventory and scoring rubric in intercultural context. It confirms that ICC is a composite of attitude, skills, knowledge and awareness which supported our intercultural interactions. It explains how to assess the cultural sensitivity of a sample of students consisting steps in assessing students’ performance and perceptions using survey by authentic questionnaire forms for each of components as the smart solution for interview which is time consuming. Since, the teaching and learning of a modern foreign language embodies the presence of another culture and contact with otherness in the development of cultural representations, the teacher is recommended to select the appropriate assessment procedures.

Keywords: intercultural communication; intercultural sensitivity measures (assessment); multicultural research; performance assessment


Intercultural  language learning has  become an important  focus  of  modern  language education, a  shift  that reflects  greater  awareness  of  the  inseparability of  language  and  culture,  and  the  need  to  prepare  language learners for intercultural communication in an increasingly multicultural world. It is in line with Fu in Xiao (2010) that today’s trend already come to intercultural communicative competence in which the language learning should deal with the students’ intercultural competence; no longer communicative competence only.

Intercultural language learning is a stance on language teaching and learning that emphasizes the interdependence of language and culture and the importance of intercultural understanding as a goal of language education. It is increasingly being promoted as a way to develop learners’ ability to negotiate meanings across languages and cultures and prepare them for living in a multicultural world.

The  importance  of  developing  intercultural  communicative  competence  alongside  linguistic competence has resulted from learners’ needs for acquiring intercultural skills for cross-cultural communication  in  which  they  may  encounter  linguistic  and  cultural  barriers.  Teaching from an intercultural perspective involves developing in learners’ critical cultural awareness of their own culturally-shaped world view and behaviors as well as the skills and attitudes to understand and successfully interact with people from other cultures, that is, to become intercultural as well as linguistically competent. EFL teachers therefore need to shift from a traditional stance to an intercultural one to develop both linguistic and intercultural competences of learners.

Regarding the importance of developing students’ intercultural communicative competence, teachers need to develop the assessment instruments to measure the students’ intercultural communicative competence in the classroom. Teachers need to assess the improvement of the students’ competence as a part of teachers’ evaluation of the teaching learning process. Therefore, this paper is aimed at presenting the assessment on students’ intercultural communicative competence.

2. Conceptual framework of reference for ICC
2.1 Theoretical aspects
In language education, learners have to learn to interact with others and mediate between two or more cultures. “Interacting effectively across cultures” means accomplishing a negotiation between people based on both culture-specific and cultural-general features that are on the whole respectful and favorable to each. Learners should be committed to turning language encounters into intercultural encounters and intercultural relationships (Guilherme, 2000). It requires certain attitudes, knowledge and skills, not considered in former conceptual frameworks. Thus, the need for new conceptual frameworks of reference in languages in order to work from linguistic competence to language communicative competence (Canale and Swain, 1980). And, to integrate the development of ICC in the conception of second and foreign language curriculum. For this reason, the discussion takes into consideration Byram’s (1997) and Lussier’s (1997; 2003) models in terms of the dimensions and sub-dimensions of ICC (the user/learner’s competences). It is also important for the readers to refer to the definitions of “intercultural competence”, “intercultural communicative competence” and, consequently, of what is to be expected from an “intercultural speaker”.
2.2 Dimensions of ICC
The three dimensions in assessing ICC are:
1.      Knowledge / savoir in terms of collective memory, diversity in the ways of living and the sociocultural context of the societies and cultures of the communities in which a language is spoken. It refers to intercultural awareness which involves the understanding of the relation (similarities and distinctive differences) between the world of origin and the world of the target communities.
2.      Know-how/savoir-faire implies at the primary level that the learners are able to function “linguistically” in the target language. Then, they should be able to interact in different contexts of ways of living, to adjust to different contexts as they integrate new experiences, use efficiently communicative competence, interpret and negotiate interaction in terms of skills. At this stage, intercultural skills imply the ability to use a variety of language strategies in order to communicate with those from other cultures, as well as the capacity to overcome stereotyped relationships.
3.      Being/savoir-etre is characterized by the attitudes, motivations, values, beliefs, cognitive styles and personality linked to personal identity. Firstly, it involves cultural competence based on cultural awareness and the understanding of other cultures, lead to critical competence, which requires the appropriation of self-identity and the ability to accept and interpret other cultures. Finally, it also implies a higher level of competence in terms of transcultural competence, otherness and the integration of other values than those of one's own culture.
Another explanation of components of Intercultural Communicative Competence is represented by the following figures.

3.    Assessing three dimension of ICC

1.    Assessing intercultural knowledge
Nowadays, ICC is assessed by paper and pencil; it means that assessment is only in knowledge about ICC. It is done by answering question in form of multiple choices, pairing items etc. by those kinds of test, the students just know about differences of the target culture and source culture. According to Cankova et.al (2007), “three domains have to be considered for knowledge, those are the humanistic approach linked to collective memory in terms of culture and civilization, the anthropological approach in terms of knowing the diversity in the ways of living of different cultures, and the sociological approach looking at the sociocultural contexts of the target societies”.
2.    Assessing intercultural know-how
Besides knowledge, today’s assessment of ICC focuses on linguistic aspect. It means that students are emphasized on knowing function and interact in target language. Now, we have to engage students into how they interact in target language environment, how they integrate in socio cultural of target language. So, the students can interact and communicate in different culture context.
3.    Assessing intercultural being
In this level of assessment, students are demanded to understand about critical awareness of other identities, in this case target culture. They have to think critically about beliefs, identities, and values of target language and compare with their own. As Cankova (2007) argued that “students need to reshape their  own  values  and  integrate  new  perspectives  so  that  they  eventually  become intercultural mediators when facing conflict-ridden situations”.

4.    Method of Assessment
As explanation before that ICC assessment now, still focus on knowledge rather than the practice of ICC in social interact. Because ICC is kind of practical competence, or in education known as affective and skill, students have to be given many experience in target language through assessment. As Cankova et.al stated that assessing ICC should imply that we take into consideration all three dimensions of ICC: not only knowledge but also the skills “knowing how” and the attitudes “being”.
In assessing ICC, teachers as test givers have to refer to many sources of information about target language that will be tested. Those sources can be anecdotal records, observation checklists, observation, rating scales, documentation of task-related behaviors, attitudes inventories, surveys, portfolios, journals, self-evaluation reports, collection of written products, interest inventories, logs, etc.
Assessment of ICC should focus on cultural context and intercultural rather than knowledge about target language. In can be integrated in the task given to the students in order to achieve the goal of ICC teaching and learning. By integrating the ICC assessment in the task (task based) it will give students more experience about target culture. So they can understand about target language and culture all at once.
There are choices provide by Cankova et.al in assessing ICC to the students.
1.      Assessment of ICC should be more formative than summative.
Formative assessment conduct on ongoing process of course or lesson while summative assessment conduct in the end of lesson to get the grade of students. Formative is conducted to achieve students in cognitive aspect only.
2.      Assessment should be continuous and not only administered at one or two fixed assessment points.
“Continuous  assessment”  is  assessment  by  the  teacher  and also  by  the  learner  of  his/her  performances,  pieces  of  work  and  projects throughout the course by giving check list and making portfolio (Cankova, 2007).
3.      Assessment can be direct or indirect.
Direct assessment is conducted by asking students to perform in role play and teacher observes the performance to get the students’ grade. 
4.      Assessment can be holistic or analytic.
“Holistic assessment” means making a global synthetic judgment about the learner’s performance. “Analytic assessment”  requires  the  assessor  to  observe  closely  all  dimensions  and  sub-dimensions, or each one separately, in order to come out with different profiles of performance or competence.
5.      Assessment can be done by others but, self-assessment, which requires judgments about your own performance, can be an effective supplement to tests and teacher assessment.       
As an assessment, ICC assessment also has to take into account about three criteria of common assessment. Those requirements are, validity, reliability, and feasibility.
5. Steps in assessing ICC
ü  When to assess
·           Before starting to teach, it may be important to get information based on the students’ experiences and backgrounds. Self-evaluation (culture-log) and a self-evaluation profile (profile diagram) are the two methods of assessment proposed as a pre-test to students.
·           During the learning sequence, the teacher’s observation in reference to specific  criteria specified  in  a  grid  and  gathering  work  from  discussions  and  productions  in  the student’s portfolio are appropriate methods of assessment.
·           At the end of a unit or learning sequence, the teacher may need to know the different types of knowledge acquired by students. Any direct testing method is possible using multiple-choice items, matching items or short answer items.  However, to evaluate know-how/savoir-faire, we need to develop tasks to be performed by students to assess the level of performance required.  Simulations  and  role-plays  based  on  critical  or conflict-ridden  incidents  would  reveal  the  students’  perceptions  mostly  when  they interact in pairs or in groups of three or four.
·           At the end of the teaching and training, the same methods used at the end of a unit or learning sequence can be repeated in terms of knowledge/savoir and know-how/savoir-faire. For being/savoir-être, the measures used before starting teaching can be repeated as  a  post-test,  that  is  we  can  use  self-evaluation  (culture-log),  self-profile  (profile diagram) and the portfolio as reflective devices. 

ü  What to assess
To  answer  this  question,  the  teacher  needs  to  identify  the  learning  outcomes;  those specified as learning outcomes for the course or as defined in the textbook, and those defined at the beginning of each unit or learning sequence. They should cover the three dimensions of ICC:  knowledge, know-how, and being.  They should also take into consideration the learning process and progress.

ü  How to assess
Each dimension of ICC covers different aspects of learning. Consequently, the methods of assessment will vary accordingly in order to evaluate the students as efficiently as possible. “Knowledge” uses indirect testing procedures, “know-how” is based on tasks and  “being”  relies  on  self-evaluation,  surveys  on  attitudes,  teachers’  grids  and  the student’s portfolio.
The  following  table  gives  a  résumé  of  the  three  dimensions  assessed  (what),  the moments they are assessed (when) and the methods of assessment selected to assess the learning of Unit of subject material (how). 

Table 1: Steps in assessing students’ performance and perceptions
One of the examples of the instrument used in ICC assessment is the following questionnaire which is adapted from developed by Alvino E. Fantini, Brattleboro, VT, USA.

The example of rubric

6.        Final appreciation: levels of performance in assessing ICC 
            ICC,  mostly  the  dimension  of  being/savoir-ere,  cannot  be  properly  assessed  using  traditional testing procedures. Alternative  methods  of assessment,  such  as  pre-  and  post-course  surveys,  students’  self-evaluation,  the teacher’s  observations  with  grids  of  the  learning  process  and  progress,  the  teacher’s evaluation and the student’s portfolio, can provide more useful information.
The final appraisal of ICC can vary according to each of the three dimensions of ICC. The dimension of knowledge/savoir can be assessed by multiple choice question and matching statements and can also be integrated into knowing how/savoir-faire, which will be graded in terms of proficiency, as  knowledge  is  integrated  within  a  performance  defined  in  terms  of  skills. For know-how/savoir-faire can be used techniques such as role-plays and simulations of critical incidents. For being/savoir-ere, its recommended self-evaluation  by  means  of  surveys  on  attitudes,  culture-logs, portfolios, reflective thinking and a teacher’s observation using grids and profiles of performance. Its assessment should rely more on an “appreciation”.
In this context, summative evaluation is less feasible because the intent is not to sum up attainment at the end of a course with a grade. The final appraisal is to be based on more than one appraisal of the learning process and progress. For all dimensions, the levels of competence can also be categorized in terms of low, medium or high profile as proposed in the European documents mentioned above.

C.  Conclusion
ICC does  not  cover  all  the  possibilities  but  it  gives guidelines  to  pave  the  way  for  all  those  who  believe  that  education  is  an  entry  to culture. It has its limitations. It also contains two surveys designed to assess teachers’ abilities to teach ICC.  

1.   Limitations  
We entered the domain of ICC assessment with cautiousness. Because culture is a mediating factor that is not easily defined or understood, there can be a large part of subjectivity in its teaching and even more in its assessment. There are so many questions that still have to be clarified and have not been addressed yet. We needed a conceptual framework of reference. It  should  be  used  as  guidelines  to educators,  curriculum  developers,  textbook  editors,  teachers  in  the  classroom  and evaluators. 
Furthermore, worldwide communication and the new development of technologies have created a transnational culture. We already know that people use words differently in different countries. There are more and more misunderstandings of the meaning of the same word.  For  that  reason,  assessors  have  to  be  cautious  and  rely  more  on techniques such as self-evaluation and evaluation based on progress, continuous and formative evaluation.
Moreover, when assessing ICC, on the basis of any textbook or even with Mirrors and windows,  there  is  always  the  possibility  that  some  teachers  will  have  been  teaching within the book and others beyond the book. This is another aspect to be considered when selecting assessment procedures.

2.   Survey instruments to assess teachers’ competence in ICC   
We know that language teachers are conveyors of cultural representations from various information sources:  syllabuses, teaching materials, selection of texts and their own experiences. But are they aware of them? And do they adopt strategies to exploit, negotiate  or  even  provide  solutions  when  there  are  tensions  or  misunderstandings between groups of learners?
We also know that by its very nature, the teaching and learning of a modern foreign language embodies the presence of another culture and contact with otherness in the development of cultural representations. Therefore, should it be as important to aim to enlarge the opening window onto other cultures as to develop linguistic competence? What is the teacher’s role in pursuing such aims? Have they been trained for it? Can they play this role? Do they want to do it? What place do they give to the teaching of ICC?
To  obtain  answers  to  such  questions  we  need  to  question  teachers.  We can conduct interviews but they are time consuming when we want to question a large number of teachers. Most of the time a written questionnaire is the most efficient instrument to gather more information in a short period of time.

Baten, L., Dusar, L., & Van Maele, J. (2011). TOOLKIT Intercultural Communicative Competence (ICC) Training Materials. CEFcult, 1(12).

Čaňková, M., Kostova, S. C., Golubina, K., Huber-Kriegler, M., Ivanus, D., Kačkere, A., . . . Wiesinger, S. (2007). Developing and assessing intercultural communicative competence (Ildikó Lázár with Martina Huber-Kriegler, Denise Lussier, Gabriela S. Matei & C. Peck Eds.). Austria: Council of Europe.

Fantini, A. E., & Brattleboro. (2006). Assessment Tools of Intercultural Communicative Competence. 
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